A designer is an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, objective economist and evolutionary strategist.
R. Buckminster Fuller
It is the greatest mistake to think that man is always one and the same. A man is never the same for long. He is continually changing. He seldom remains the same even for half an hour.
George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff
You cant miss it. Its the only house on the street that looks like it isnt there, says the voice on the phone.
This is the first clue.
Then, out of the corner of your eye, driving past the parade of beige houses, all perfectly aligned along sidewalks evenly stitched with date palms, you spot a flash of blue, a smear of sky. And though youve just passed it, you really cant miss it. The absence of the house is alarming, a glitch in the Matrix. Now you are sure that what you are about to see will challenge your definition of home; it will force you to see things in a new way. This house will demand it.
To read Linda Immediato's accompanying story on Habitat for Humanity and its efforts to house people after Katrina, click here.
As you approach the driveway, a path unexpectedly materializes. And should you choose to follow this path, though there is no clear indication you should, it will deliver you to a wooden slatted gate guarded by a heavy-duty metal call box that would take Oceans 11 to crack. But the gate opens without explosives or code-hacking device, finally revealing the covert abode and its creator.
Architect Josh Schweitzer, with his shock of chlorine-tinged white hair and matching soul patch, resembles a hip L.A. Mad Hatter, minus the hat. Circular plastic glasses, so emblematic of his profession, dangle willy-nilly from his paint-spotted gray T-shirt.
I trail him past a small building (a former carport turned artists studio), a glimmering pool and a jungle in infancy. Birds of paradise, only 4 feet high now (they will eventually grow to 20), punctuate the landscape here and there, like green exclamation marks on the mud. There is not a blade of grass in eyeshot; its wall-to-wall dirt. As we hop from cement rectangle to cement rectangle, or the occasional planks of wood that act as makeshift footbridges, Schweitzer says apologetically, This will all be filled in with grass; we just havent gotten around to getting the sod yet.
Then, rising from the primordial soil, is The House, designed for his family from the ground up. There was a small 900-square-foot cottage on the property, which he promptly ordered scraped off the land. This came as no surprise to friends who sought Schweitzers counsel for their new homes and were met by his swift verdict: Tear it down. Off with your house. One family friend said she had waited to invite Schweitzer over until she got her new home just right in hopes it would escape his mental bulldozer. And when he was finally allowed to visit, she asked him hesitantly, So... what do you think? He paused, shook his head and dashed her hopes against the walls with two words tear down. Hes not trying to be cruel; its just that Schweitzer thinks that most houses are built wrong. The living spaces are placed in the front, facing the street, and the bedrooms in the back, facing the yard, dividing the house into very separate inside and outside spaces, which usually cant be experienced at the same time.
Its like everyone has an idea of what a house should be, or what theyve had in the past, he says, and they just follow it without really thinking about it.
Of course, Schweitzer knows most people cant afford to erase their house and start over. I have to come up with some kind of plan, he says. Typically, I just turn the house inside out. This might include moving around a few inner walls to get the shared living spaces the living room, kitchen and dining room together and oriented toward the outside. Moving walls is easy, Schweitzer announces breezily. At least its usually less expensive than demolition and rebuilding. And Schweitzer knows better than most how hard it is to create a home out of a lifetimes worth of good ideas.
Designing this house was a painful process, he winces, closing the curtains on his upstaging green-blue eyes. Of all the buildings he designed including the West Hollywood reform synagogue Congregation Kol Ami; the late CITY café, both Border Grills and Ciudad (restaurants his wife, Mary-Sue Milliken, created with partner Susan Feniger); Campanile restaurant, in a building built originally for Charlie Chaplin and his child-bride Lita Grey; his former shared getaway called The Monument in Joshua Tree Park; along with several offices and celebrity homes building his new house was the toughest because, he says, I had all the time in the world. There were no deadlines and the possibilities were endless. Hed start drawing and change it midway, mid-line. He built more than 40 different scaled models every day a new house.
Charles Keeler, artist and staunch supporter of architect Bernard Maybeck and the Simple Home movement, once said that of all architecture, the designing of the home brings the artist into closest touch with the life of man. A home is a shelter, an incubator for children and, for the architect who lives there, an extension of himself. What does Schweitzer want to say about himself and about the life of man? Lets go with him and check his reflection in the looking glass.
From the outside, the Schweitzers house looks hewn from a single block of stone, monolithic and immovable. There is a sense of permanence and grounding, important qualities for a family. The granite look is actually just unfinished brown stucco, a favorite of Schweitzers and a puzzlement to some of the tradesmen he works with. When he refuses to put those last few coats on, many contractors look at him like hes crazy, the Mad Hatter.
When we take these screens off, its gonna have these rocks that drag and scar and pebbles, he says, mimicking the contractors concern. He tells them, Yeah, but I like that. He likes how the stucco will stain from the rain. He likes that the color will fade and, yes, that moss might grow on it. The cement wall that hides the house has already started to weep its lye.
Its starting to breathe life, Schweitzer says, wringing his hands with the zest of Howard Hughes alone with a bar of soap, then uttering a statement that would have made the germ-phobic industrialist shudder: If it grows moldy it will be even better.
Not only does Schweitzer want his house to age, he intentionally built it to grow old gracefully. All homes age, but most of us fight it: We repaint every few years, sanding and smoothing out chips. Our nip-tuck society is reflected in where we live, but aging is an inevitability that Schweitzer actually looks forward to and accepts as part of the process.
Slicing the single-story house open like a polished geode are 12-foot windows and doors that remain open all day, allowing in a balmy cross breeze that gives the feeling of being perpetually on vacation. As a kid growing up in Ohio and Kentucky, Schweitzer fantasized about living in a tropical kind of place with ocean breezes and palm trees.
If it was up to me, he confesses as we enter an open area that encompasses the dining room, kitchen and living room, Id live in a place that had a floor and ceiling and no walls.
Realizing that even temperate Southern California has a seasonal need for walls, Schweitzer did the next best thing he made them out of glass. See all those palm trees out there? he asks, pointing past the giant window-walls to the tops of the six or seven trees that line the street beyond. We only have one in our yard, but theyre all ours now. This is a Japanese concept of borrowed landscape that is foreign to all of us curtain-closers. The Japanese may live in confined areas, but they often create shared spaces if you live near a mountain, you have only to open your window and look at it to own it.
Thats why building on the mountains is forbidden in Japan, Schweitzer says. The view cannot be marred even for a billion-dollar home, since it belongs to everyone.
This idea is another reason Schweitzer put his pool in the front yard and built his house toward the back of the lot and another example of how people can go wrong when building a house.
I dont understand why everyone on this block, where some of them have these amazingly huge lots, didnt stagger the houses, building some in the back, some in the front. Instead they lined them up in the middle, all in a row, so when they look out their side windows, its like, BAM, your neighbors are right on top of you.
Now look at the view from Schweitzers house. Its surrounded by his neighbors back yards, and when he looks out his windows, he shares their flowering trees and open sky.
And now that hes on the subject, Schweitzer gets a little upset. I dont understand this guy, he says as hedirects his pointer finger, like a PowerPoint presenter. He never comes out of his house. We live in this unbelievable place and people just dont live outside. They dont go outside. They stay inside and turn on their air conditioning when we have this breeze that comes from the beach and cools everything down! Hes genuinely bewildered. I mean, this is as hot as it gets. If you cant take that?!
After Schweitzers you cant handle the truth Nicholson meltdown, you suddenly see what is being demanded of you. The R. Buckminster Fuller idea about there being no up and down comes to mind except with Schweitzer, its in and out. Southern Californians may have a reputation for indoor-outdoor living, but too many of us need a shove out the door.
Thats what was great about the other place, Schweitzer dreamily recollects, it really forced us to go outside. It was like a little village.
He sounds like hes talking about an unrequited love. The paramour in question, the former Aloha Swim School on Washington Boulevard, was remade by Schweitzer into a living compound and inhabited by his family for 20 years. Each room was actually a separate structure set around an Olympic-sized pool. The locker rooms were transformed into the living room, kitchen and dining room where friends and family gathered. Sheltered by tropical landscaping, the garage shed on the other side of the pool became the master bedroom, and separate houses were built for his sons as they came into the world. For most kids, a bad dream means a trip down a hallway to Mom and Dad for his oldest son, Declan, it meant a Where the Wild Things Are adventure down an outdoor path under a blanket of darkness. At 2 a.m. Declans door would open, then close, and then wed hear the sound of his feet padding against the cement floors, growing closer before the knock at our door, Schweitzer remembers. It never phased him, its just what he had to do to get to Mom and Dad.
The problem was that the house was a fortress, with tall fences surrounding the forest in fantasyland that the kids loved when they were younger but isolated them as they got older. Living far from friends made planning play dates a logistical nightmare.
The kids were walled in, Schweitzer says. There was no place to go. If it werent for that, they probably would have stayed forever. Even the parts that sounded bad, like having to grab an umbrella on rainy days to traverse the outdoor staircase from the bedroom to the kitchen, take on a sweet nostalgia. Schweitzer remembers how Declan, 3 or 4 at the time, was shocked to discover that other people didnt live the way he did when he visited a friend for the first time. Wow, your house is so weird, hed said, you have stairs inside your house.
Schweitzer had initially wanted to build separate structures for the new house, but the building departmentwouldnt let him. They were afraid that the narrow 54-by-300-foot property would get subdivided into tiny rental units. But even with this limitation, Schweitzer didnt give up his ideas. So in the new home, there is no in and out; it is one living space. A hallway runs through the middle of the 3,200-square-foot house, acting as a pebble-spotted cement runway for the kids, who freely jump out of the front-yard pool and run through the house dripping wet (something that would cause a coronary in many wood-floored houses), to the small backyard garden on the other side.
For the house itself he was limited only by his wifes hand in designing the kitchen (both inside and, coming soon, outside as well). The kids also had a say in designing their rooms mainly the cry was for sleeping lofts. So Kierans room can hold almost every action figure imaginable and an upright piano, because his drawers are built into the steps that lead to his lofted bed, which is surrounded by books. Declan has a desk in his downstairs space and a really cool IKEA carpet that looks like spliced cable wire. But when it came to closets and drawers, Declan wanted flexibility, so Schweitzer didnt design built-ins.
In this sense, the son is much like the father.
To Schweitzer, a house and its rooms should be ever-changing. A person is an evolving being, and a home should mirror that concept. The solid mustard-colored wall of the living room, for instance, changed shape many times during the course of construction. In its currentincarnation it is recessed, giving the impression of a giant fireplace worthy of Hearst Castle, except there is no fireplace, just an empty boxfilled with shadow a shadowplace. A mantle above it holds artwork, some of Schweitzers own paintings. Soffits pour through the house like cubistic drips. It comes from my restaurant work, he says. The floor had to be free for movement, but up here, he motions to the ceiling, is all a playground to me.
Things changed by the minute during construction, too. Schweitzer would work on designs up to the moment the nail went in. Id ask the contractor, Whatcha guys working on today? If he said, The living room soffits, Id quickly go to my studio and bang out a few new drawings, changing it as they were building. A very merry unbirthday to them. But he insists, They didnt give a shit, as long as it didnt affect time or money.
The problem is his mind wont stop, evidenced by the eyeglasses, glassware and even jewelry hes designed, in addition to chairs, tables, lamps, waiters uniforms and more. I love the process, the infinite variables.
What he hates is shopping hed rather do anything than shop. As a result, the rooms are sparely decorated with objects Schweitzer either made or inherited from earlier jobs, including chairs he designed for Border Grill and a dining-room table rejected from Diane Keatons home (it was originally mauve, now its a pale yellow). The family room, with a solid, sliding wood door, boasts a reproduction Bucky Fuller globe, an illuminated reminder of the out and in. And in the living room is a fixture from CITY café, a sculpture-esque light standing more than 10 feet tall that looks like a red TV with giant yellow legs, a functional souvenir of his and Millikens early days. Youd think it was tailored for the very spot where it stands, but when it was dragged out of storage, Schweitzer and Milliken scratched their heads and said, How about here? It still has the same bulb from 10 years ago.
To further illustrate his hatred of shopping, Schweitzer tells the tale of the foam-core light shade he had to make in desperation before a photo shoot because neither he nor his wife, another shopaphobe, ever bothered to buy a real shade. The faux one ended up hanging over their dining-room table for 10 years until it finally fell apart from old age walls he can change in an instant, but dont ask him to buy a new couch.
The only store Schweitzer can abide is IKEA. Its one-stop shopping, with kind of disposable furniture, but it still looks good and is cheap enough that its OK if it falls apart. Well buy, like, this coffee table for example, and say, Oh, well just use it for a few weeks until we get a new one, then wind up having it for a few years. He laughs at himself as he places his condensation-coated water glass on it, sans coaster. He looks again to a Japanese philosophy of architecture, which involves never quite finishing a room. The rooms are simple and austere because if they got any more done there would be this finality of it. In the whole process, theres a life of the thing, the idea that it can change and evolve. Nothing is fixed. Furniture comes in and out, but when [a home] is done... it would be dead.
The evolution of the space and the evolution of the man cant be separated. When Schweitzer gave up his architecture firm four years ago to pursue painting, some looked at it as a midlife crisis. But Schweitzer felt that he was ready for a new phase; he was ready to change into something else. Now hes a stay-at-home dad who bakes pies, makes sausage from scratch and escapes to the pod he created for himself, the artists studio we passed on the way in the old carport area. This is where he can freely explore his fascination with process and discovery, which he describes as threads that reveal themselves. Hell pull one here, see where it goes, only to have another show. He surveys the piles and piles of painted boxes glued together like, well, rooms in a house some painted white, some red, some marked by something that looks like a roasted coffee bean. Most of the work lying about was for his first show, called Smoothbox, at the gallery Glü.
Its, well, you know... Schweitzer is trying find a polite word to describe his art, but he quickly gives up. Uh ... theyre pussies, really. It just kept coming out. I played with the yoni shape; I played with a Styrofoam/wood-block thing. He picks up a piece of framed art, which, if you held it up to a mirror, would declare, I LOVE YOUR PUSSY. He grins somewhat sheepishly. He likes the way the paint seeps through the tape on the boxes, and uses the fact that it was crushed by the UPS guy. The boxes begin to have a life, too, just like his house.
If I dont like it, I paint over it or throw it away. Some I go, Yep, thats done. Some take a year I just let them sit there. But I dont want to keep painting pussies forever and ever and ever. I just need to figure out what thread Im going to pull next.
So weve been asked to tear down our home, to live inside and out, to put our back yards in the front, to open our curtains and steal our neighbors views to redefine what a home is. But right now, with his old fantasy swim-compound sold and redecorated to the point where he barely recognizes it anymore, Schweitzer takes a look around his new home, his latest work in progress, and says with satisfaction, I do like not having to put on a jacket to get a cup of coffee now.
Most people view roof gutters as an afterthought, but Josh Schweitzer makes an event out of rain. Instead of shooing it down a clunky aluminum drain, Schweitzer guides the water through troughs built into the house and then into a cement collection box that overflows into the surrounding landscape, creating a rainy-day fountain. The cascading rain has a peaceful sound as it trickles through the modern wishing well.
Dont be afraid to have furniture custom-made it doesnt have to be as expensive as you might think and sometimes can cost less than buying new pieces even from Pottery Barn or Crate & Barrel. Although Schweitzer is an architect, hes never studied furniture-making, so like any of us might, he turned to the pros for help. He flipped through catalogs for ideas and found craftsmen by looking on Web sites and even in the Yellow Pages. He chose the ones who asked questions and added their expertise on how to make his ideas better. When he designed the dining-room chairs that hes used for the past 10 years, the woodworkers at the company he used suggested raising the front of the seat by an inch to make sitting more comfortable. To this day Schweitzer and his dinner guests thank them. And heres another tip: If you incorporate parts of designs that a company already uses (maybe the legs of one chair combined with the seat of another), the job will be simpler and less expensive.
Schweitzer often looks at the undersides of fabric and rugs, and pretty much turns everything topsy-turvy to see if something good happens that the creators didnt intend. When looking to upholster his couch, he discovered that chenille, what he calls grandma couch fabric, is actually smooth and rich and lustrously pearly when you turn it inside out. He chose a champagne-colored fabricspeckled with silvery spots and a chocolatey brown one that had bronze flecks much sexier than grandmas house.
You might think it strange to discover that an architect who has so many designers at his disposal would shop at IKEA, but the prefab furniture is hard to pick out from the custom pieces in a lineup. I never would have guessed that Schweitzers coffee table was an assembly-required piece. And while his sleek arm lamps and dining-room chandeliers look as if they came from some high-end lighting boutique, theyre really from Schweitzers favorite Swedish retailer.
As Schweitzer says, Its hard to have a sense of austere architecture when you have kids. Toys migrate. But having a house that looks lived in is not only okay with this architect, he says its all part of life. If you spend your time policing mail and books and corralling stuff, you lose out on enjoying your home and time with your family. And you lose the humanity of your home. Some of the most famous architects had messy homes. Eames home was rumored to have been a pigsty.
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Space is a luxury, so dont overfill a room with furniture just because you can. Having room to walk gives you room to breathe and think. I would rather have space, which really is a luxury, than the fanciest anything, Schweitzer says matter-of-factly. So many people look at a room as just something they have to fill up; they dont realize that they want space they need it or maybe they think they cant afford it. And if you dont have a lot of space at home, Schweitzer says it can be stolen with impunity all you have to do is open a window.
Schweitzers lot is just 54 feet wide, so building a house with a sense of openness on the narrow space was a challenge. Most people build their houses in a block pattern, going as far to the edges as possible. But then, Schweitzer says, you have about 3 feet between you and a fence. Instead, the architect went long with his design so he could have a little breathing room all around the home. And instead of placing the hallway in the middle of the house, with rooms on either side, he shifted all the major rooms to one side and put the hallway on the other, creating what Schweitzer calls a single loaded corridor. Tucked outside the flow of the home, in a spot where you might expect to find a small patio, is a family room that can be separated from the hubbub of the rest of the house with a floor-to-ceiling sliding wood door. High ceilings and huge windows also help give the home spaciousness.
Be clever, Schweitzer says when it comes to saving money. First, know that a good layout will give you the biggest bang for your buck thats why he always looks for ways to make spaces multipurpose. He also suggests adopting his Alice in Wonderland way of looking at things: Change your perspective. Instead of spending a lot of money on pricey door handles, for instance, elevate them from the usual waist-high position, even up to shoulder level. It makes a $10 doorknob from Home Depot special, because it is unexpected and it forces you to be aware of your environment. And if you can only afford standard-issue window frames, place the windows higher than you might normally so that your view incorporates more of the sky and opens up your space.
Schweitzer suggests cove lighting instead of expensive lighting systems or designer lamps. That means building niches along a wall or near the ceiling where you can insert long-lasting, energy-efficient fluorescent bulbs. Normally fluorescent light has a harsh quality, but tucked in a cove, the indirect illumination softens. He also likes to rework affordable fixtures. So instead of spending $400 to $500 on pendant lights, Schweitzer bought a few from IKEA for $14 and swapped the white wire for black, giving them an instant make-over.