selected Jon Hassell discography
1999 Fascinoma Water Lily Acoustics
1994 Dressing for Pleasure Warner Bros.
1990 City: Works of Fiction OpalWarner Bros.
1989 Flash of the Spirit Intuition (with Farafina)
1987 The Surgeon of the Nightsky Restores Dead Things by the Power of Sound Intuition
1986 Power Spot ECM
1983 Aka-Dabari-Java -- Magic Realism Editions E.G.
1981 Dream Theory in Malaya -- Fourth World Vol. 2 Editions E.G.
1980 Possible Musics -- Fourth World Vol. 1 Editions E.G. (with Brian Eno)
1979 Earthquake Island Tomato
1977 Vernal Equinox Lovely Music
1998 Primary Colors with Ry Cooder MCA
1997 The End of Violence with Ry Cooder Outpost
1995 Sulla Strada (1982) (theatrical score) Materiali Sonori
1993 Trespass with Ry Cooder SireWarner Bros.
1989 Passion (The Last Temptation of Christ) with Peter Gabriel RealWorld
1985 Birdy with Peter Gabriel Virgin
1998 Nomad Soul Baaba Maal Palm Pictures
1998 Little Plastic Castle Ani DiFranco Righteous Babe
1997 Drag k.d. Lang Warner Bros.
1996 Pink Noir David Toop Virgin
1995 Re-Entry Techno Animal Virgin
1993 And She Closed Her Eyes Stina Nordenstam East-West
1991 The Crocodile Smile Marc Beacco Nova
1991 Les Nouvelles Polyphonies Corses Philips
1986 Alchemy -- An Index of Possibilities David Sylvian Virgin
1984 Brilliant Trees David Sylvian Virgin
1982 Ambient #4 -- On Land Brian Eno Editions E.G.
1980 Remain in Light Talking Heads Sire
1973 Dream House LaMonte Young Shandar
1968 In C Terry Riley CBS
1997 Deep Orient #2: Musique de Nuit Nova track: Blues Nile
1996 Ocean of Sound Ambient 10 Virgin track: Empire III
1993 Eno 1 tracks: Chemistry, Courage
1993 Ambient 1 Virgin tracks: Delta Rain Dream, Gift of Fire
1993 Ai Confini Interzone New Tone track: Pygmy Dance
1993 Voiceprint: Jon Hassell vs. 808 State OpalWarner Bros. tracks: Voiceprint, Streetfaxx
1987 White Man Sleeps Kronos Quartet Nonesuch track: Pano da Costa
1986 La Nouvelle Serenite Sub Rosa track: Map of Dusk
1982 Womad: Music and Rhythm WEA track: Ba-Benzele
Since 1977, the Los Angeles--based composertrumpeter Jon Hassell has recorded 11 solo albums that blur the boundaries separating serious and popular music. Hes collaborated with an eclectic group of artists, including Brian Eno; Farafina, a traditional ensemble of drummers and dancers from Burkina Faso; director Peter Sellars; fashion designers Issey Miyake and Rei Kawakubo; choreographers Merce Cunningham and Alvin Ailey; and the Kronos Quartet.
Hassell is also the inventor of Fourth World, a hugely influential composed and improvised music that hybridizes African-derived polyrhythms, Indian microtonality and Balinese sonorities, melted through recombinant aesthetics made possible by digital technology. Quite often, Fourth World is none of the above. And lately, Hassell has explored the wonders of playing music absolutely straight.
Fourth World is not just a musical style but a way of viewing life itself, rooted in its creators past, in Memphis, Tennessee. My father had a cornet lying around the house, so I played that, used to lock myself in the bathroom, play Stormy Weather and stuff like that. I heard Stan Kenton on the radio, I heard Les Baxter, Duke Ellington and Juan Tizols Caravan, and Ravel -- a permanent Technicolor oasis in my spirit.
Hassell left the South for the Eastman School, where he studied composition and allied himself with the 12-tone types into Webern and Schoenberg and Berg, et al. After a stint in the Army, he earned a masters in composition and nearly completed his Ph.D. in musicology at Catholic University of America. But by then hed discovered Berio and Stockhausen, and I just had to find out where these blocks of notes were going. He went to Cologne to study with Stockhausen, from whom Hassell learned a lot about the wherefores and could-bes of electronic music. I saw how one applied statistical means; there were exercises where youd notate short-wave radio bits, youd see how scores were constructed. Stockhausen started a different point of view: Instead of building sounds up by defining all the parameters, start with the whole and then infer the parts of that whole.
Returning to America, Hassell met Terry Riley, who was at that time recording his classic In C. This was Hassells first contact with American Minimalism, whose mesmerizing repeated figures brought him home to something hed missed: sensuality. I remember Terry calling all of that other music over there, the post-Webern things, neurotic. And it was so self-evident -- this is the sound of Freud in Vienna, and Schiele and all that. Hassells a subsequent work with LaMonte Young found him further exploring minimalistic music that reconciled the body, mind and spirit, a vertical way of playing and listening to mutating structures created by overtones in flux.
There is an instantly identifiable Hassell sound. On his best-known albums, including Possible Musics (1980) and Dream Theory in Malaya (1981), its not at all like trumpet; amid the pitter-pattering rhythms and generally steamy ambiance, you think youre hearing voices, huddled together, cooing, giggling, chanting. In fact, youre hearing Hassells voice, or, rather, his mouth and voice box -- hes singing with his trumpet. Its a technique he developed in his studies with Indian vocal master Pandit Pran Nath, whom he met in the 70s through both Young and Riley, who had studied with Pran Nath in India. At around the same time, Hassell got into Miles Davis -- On the Corner, that era -- and started playing with a wah-wah pedal. Thats when the daylight world and the night world came together; the daylight world is, youre painting white-on-white painting, as in the minimalist-school compositional effect, and then at night, when it comes to groove, youre putting on Miles.
Whence comes the Fourth World. I saw how Indian music had structure and sensuality at the same time, so rather than literally using the tamboura, I translated the tamboura into an electronic cluster of samples or an electronic drone, and then added whatever rhythmic elements one can infer. I didnt want to reference; I wanted to get a new idea about what could be. With Pran Nath, Hassell learned that theres no limit to musical variation when one coils among the notes. There are 12 notes between B and C, and theres all that other space in between, and youre doing a little tie, right? I heard Pran Nath start off, and 15 minutes into it I realized hed gone only two or three half-steps, because of all the possible ways of making the curves.
In the Indian tradition they say that all instruments come from the voice, and my technique came from having to learn that shape-making from the voice. Timbre and musical expression are interrelated -- a lot of Indian instruments and voices derive from that, because you cant drive a truck [tuba] in a graceful curve; it has to be something which is malleable enough to make all these curves [sitar, voice]. I find the tiniest vibration that I can with the mouthpiece and then try and trick myself into thinking Im still playing only the mouthpiece. If I can do that, I can do anything.
Hassells electronic devices have often inspired the pieces themselves. I was learning to do the vocal-like slide technique, then this harmonizer [a digital multiplying effect] came along and I started playing in parallel fourths or fifths, sort of mirroring the birth of polyphony, how plainsong began with just one line and then, given various ranges of voices, started singing in parallels, and then somebody got the idea to play on top of that, etc. His use of harmonizer can approach the orchestral -- Blue Night on Dressing for Pleasure, for example, on which, via a switching device, one harmonizer plays into another and into another.
Hassell took sampling into the realms of hyperreality on the 1983 Aka-Dabari-Java -- Magic Realism, where his supercollaging found him using one second of a gamelan, one second of a voice, one second of Yma SumacLes Baxter orchestration, with a drummer playing underneath it all. He addressed the poetic possibilities of digital transformations . . . a background mosaic of frozen moments . . . a sonic texture like a Mona Lisa which, in close-up, reveals itself to be made up of tiny reproductions of the Taj Mahal. Here Fourth World became what Hassell called a coffee-colored classical music of the future.
Then Hassell heard Hank Shocklees stupefyingly complex collages on Public Enemys It Takes a Nation of Millions To Hold Us Back and saw that collage -- techniques and philosophies directly deriving from Stockhausen and the musique concrete crowd of the 50s -- had entered the popular consciousness. It was very related to Pygmy music -- it was based on what was around them that they picked up in the morning, what the Pygmies heard, Pygmies imitating birdcalls and rhythms coming out of spear blades and things like that. And here youve got kids living in the Bronx and whose environment is the radio. Hip-hop is like the music of the loudspeaker, its doing the same thing Pygmies did with birdcalls.
The advent of MIDI and sophisticated sampling technology led Hassell into new realms with the albums City: Works of Fiction and Dressing for Pleasure (whose title derives from the fetish world), complexly faceted and funky works on which he extrapolated from hip-hop into how far sampling could be taken. Not coincidentally, Shocklee had cited Brian Eno and David Byrnes My Life in the Bush of Ghosts as an influence, a record whose gambit of planting ethnic samples atop electric rhythms Eno and Byrne had, after consulting with Hassell, taken for themselves. I should do a record where I sample My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, he says. These days Eno and Hassell are good friends, though he doesnt see much of Byrne.
Considering the devilishly electronic nature of Hassells previous albums, I had to wonder about his current entirely different course, soundwise. His new album, Fascinoma, was recorded in a church in Santa Barbara, on magnetic tape, with one stereo microphone and no digital effects. Perhaps Hassell has experienced a bit of electronicmedia overload these last few years -- or suffered too much of its ensuing clever irony.
Theres also the problem of the Hassell-derived futureprimitive musical kitsch (ethnic samples + electronics) we suffer in every elevator. Inevitably, you question, Well, gee, would it have been better for this never to have happened? You come to a certain point in collective thought where progressives suddenly become the carriers of orthodoxy. Of course, the ad world is all ready to pick up the latest contrarian view and turn it into a commercial -- William Burroughs doing Nike ads, like that.
Fascinoma was produced by the ubiquitous yet unobtrusive Ry Cooder, whom Hassell calls a spirit catcher, a master of authentica. The album sees Hassell -- aided by a team that includes pianist Jacky Terrasson, bansuri (flute) player Ronu Majumdar, guitaristclarinetist Rick Cox and percussionist Jamie Muhoberac -- going back to the fragrant songs he loved as a youth (such as Nature Boy, Poinciana and Caravan), touchstones, like little windows opening out of my 1950s world.
Fascinoma digs deep into the mysteries of pure tone -- almost. While it boasts an authentic audiophiliac analog experience, thats not quite an authentic way of describing it, as the players also employed samples, and the performances were edited. But the technology is minimal, and most of the cuts were played straight through, with little rehearsal. The church setting allowed Hassell to build on the idea of not creating something from scratch, but having to harmonize with the beauty thats contained in a room.
There clearly is a relationship between timbre and what kind of music you play; theyre organically related. So, when a certain quota of beauty is already fulfilled when you walk into the room, Nature Boy feels as right to do as the B-minor Mass.
Fascinomas way of recording has given Hassell ideas for future projects. Id love to do a record with Jimmy Scott, in that intimate one-microphone way. And Id like to do a record with Joao Gilberto, just me and him up in the church. Ive been so enchanted by his sensuality and his rhythmic grace and everything, you could put it up with the masterworks of the world. Gilbertos music, says Hassell, is unassailable.
There is beauty, like naked beauty. If you want to talk yourself out of it, okay, go ahead and talk yourself out of it.
Digital technology has given birth to musical methods by which one can easily mix n match elements from as many cultures as one pleases, a situation that has led to cries of colonialism toward artists who werent deemed to be respecting the source material. Its always phrased this way -- and one wonders how such respect could be sufficiently demonstrated. One is reminded of the Brazilian Tropicalistas of the late 60s, early 70s, proudly proclaiming their cannibalization of all and any music (European included) they could get their hands on, or the Indian musicians who adapted the violin for their ragas.
Who may cannibalize without guilt? Jon Hassell? Maybe so -- one has only to listen to see that he has consistently created something new out of his lovingly borrowed elements.
The crux of it is, Is this better than the thing youve appropriated? Does this add anything to the world, or would it be better to hear the source that you took from? Remember that Hassells early inspiration came from career inauthenticists such as exotica king Les Baxter, whose purpose in life was to provide people with pleasurable escape. Its a stretch, but you could say that Les Baxters fake music was honest in its guileless hunger for adventure.
Its so simple and yet its so difficult. I keep saying, Put yourself in a dark room and keep asking the question, What is it that I really like? There are things youve been told that you like, things youve been commissioned to like, and things youve been told its not right to like. I dont see the difference in kids playing out now; I pray that they hit the spot where they start thinking, What is it that I really like? And not what has been foisted on me.
Hassell, like a lot of musicians in L.A., has had his stab at composing for big Hollywood films, including the soundtrack for Wim Wenders The End of Violence. He recently scored Wenders upcoming The Million Dollar Hotel, in which he also appears onscreen as a down-and-out musician living in a Skid Row dive. For his acting debut, Hassell drew on his musical side, and he enjoyed it.
In attempting to present yourself, you have to groom yourself to perform onstage; its the same dynamic -- you want to be yourself as much as possible, be as comfortable as possible. Its a lot easier being myself without an instrument on my mouth. So it was fun, a lotta fun. He laughs. I play a shabby trumpet player.
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