Once Upon a Time in Amerika
Presented in nine chapters and a prologue, all set to the grandfatherly drawl of John Hurts storybook narration, Lars von Triers Dogville is a postmodern morality play stripped nearly bare by its precocious creator, until only its boldness, cutting insight, intermittent hilarity and bracing violence remain. It is also, not unlike a certain recent blockbuster, a potent parable of human suffering, the contagion of fear and how loath we truly are to love thy neighbor, here unfolding amid the Great Depression in a fictitious Rocky Mountain town nestled somewhere near the intersection of Bertolt Brecht Avenue and High Noon Way. A town, were told, where good, honest folk trudge forth through wicked times.
Just how wicked is something Trier holds close to the vest until we are well immersed in Dogvilles sprawling three-hour canvas. First, though, some introductions are in order. Say hello to shopkeepers Gloria (Harriet Andersson) and Ma Ginger (Lauren Bacall), whose highway-robbery prices take advantage of the fact that Dogville is or was a company town; to family farmer Chuck (Stellan Skarsgård), his wife, Vera (Patricia Clarkson), and their brood of towheaded youngsters; to retired physician Tom Edison Sr. (Philip Baker Hall); and to Tom Edison Jr. (Paul Bettany), an aspiring author who has managed, to date, to set only two words to paper.
Failing the appearance of his muse, Tom, in Dogvilles opening scenes, sets about another, no less inventive, task, that of leading a series of town meetings focused on the subject of moral rearmament. He seeks to illustrate the human problem to receive, and, sooner rather than later, a prime opportunity falls right into his lap. When an eruption of gunfire somewhere on the outskirts of Dogville heralds the arrival of a beautiful fugitive, not coincidentally named Grace (Nicole Kidman), its Tom who talks Dogvilles proud River City types into protecting the poor girl from a bunch of shadowy gangsters in dark-tinted Cadillacs. Really, he suggests, they ought to give Grace a try.
Thus things proceed for a good long while, with Grace gradually becoming an indispensable part of the Dogville economy, tending to all sorts of tasks baby-sitting, tutoring, visiting a reclusive bachelor (Ben Gazzara) too proud to admit hes blind which somehow, prior to her arrival, never needed tending to. But it is not so very long before she starts to see her adopted town in a new light, one that casts its rays upon the hearts and minds of the denizens of Dogville, illuminating every flaw. And it is not so very much later that Grace comes to understand the full meaning of Chucks ominous warning: People are animals. Feed em enough and theyll eat till their bellies burst.
In a series of developments that will hardly surprise those whove followed Triers recent work, the film goes on to chart Graces exploitation by the residents of Dogville how she becomes a convenient scapegoat for their own moral shortcomings and a receptacle for their deep-seated bitterness toward one another. Similar fates, you may recall, befell Emily Watsons Bess in Breaking the Waves and Björks Selma in Dancer in the Dark. But if those characters suggested a distinctly Bressonian exploration of the self-sacrificing innocent, Dogvilles ivory-skinned, quietly aristocratic Grace seems less disposed to such immolations. And when you further consider that Trier has shot Dogville on a nearly naked sound stage constructed especially for the occasion, with the entire town outlined in chalk on the floor and just a few props roughed in for effect, you begin to see just how radical this movie really is. Radical, I should add, not so much in the sense of breaking new ground, for in addition to the influence of Brecht (and, in particular, the Pirate Jenny ballad from The Threepenny Opera), Dogville certainly owes something to the work of a long line of theater-cinema hybridists, from Jean Cocteau to Jean-Marie Straub. Rather, the films revolutionary spirit derives from its effort the culmination of something Trier has been building toward since he first drew up the infamous Dogme 95 manifesto to reclaim a kind of pure cinema that has become largely obfuscated in an age that sees so much filmmaking craft available at the touch of a button. Which is to say, a cinema capable of stirring in us the greatest and most tremulous of human emotions, and a searching sense of our own foibles and shortcomings.
And heres where we come to the thing that has really rubbed some folks the wrong way about Dogville, ever since it premiered at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival: that the film is set in America, that it purports to have something to say about this country, and that the notoriously travel-phobic Trier has had the gall to do this without ever once setting foot on our soil. Worse yet, Dogville is but the first in a planned trilogy called USA Land of Opportunities, the next installment of which, Manderlay, will reportedly follow the character of Grace to a small Southern town where slavery, circa 1930, is still a living institution.
But the perception of Dogville as armchair anti-Americanism stems from a fundamental misreading of the film, one that allies Trier with abused victim Grace, when its clear that his actual alter ego resides in demiurge Tom, whos positioned, like the ethereal Stage Manager from Wilders Our Town, at once inside the action and somehow outside it, trotting Dogvilles perilous high wire between intellectual curiosity and intellectual arrogance. A good way into the film, Tom reveals to Grace that he has finally completed the first chapter of a story, about a woman like her and a town like Dogville. He asks her to suggest a title. Why not just call it Dogville? she replies. No, he says. Its got to be universal. A lot of writers make that mistake. And so it is that Triers Dogville, set in a country he knows only from movies and television, becomes a cautionary, confessional fable for all men in all seasons who would pursue art at the expense of compassion.
I could go on, for Dogville has rarely been far from my mind in the 10 months following Cannes, during which time it has grown only richer, deeper and more complex than I initially estimated. Surely, the extraordinary cast of characters Trier has sketched out, and the equally estimable cast of performers he has enlisted to portray them, deserve closer attention than Ive so far managed. In particular: Bettany, charming and demure, the brightest kid in town, and a blocked writer worthy of Jack Torrance; Skarsgård, so earthen you may want to plant him; and Clarkson, showing a vindictive menace (in one unforgettable scene) of which few would imagine her capable. Also not to be overlooked is the wide-screen, digital-video cinematography of regular Trier collaborator Anthony Dod Mantle (though the camera was hand-held by the director himself), disinclined to obvious displays of beauty, yet punctuated by overhead shots of the entire Dogville set that are as arresting as any of Breaking the Waves so-called post cards from God. Then there is Kidman herself, hush-voiced and glassy-eyed as if lost in a private dream, unflinching from the various onscreen tortures she must endure and, generally, doing very little acting at all in her most impressive screen performance to date.
But if a single moment stands out from the rest when I reflect back on my Dogville year, its the screening of the film I attended two weeks ago, in the company of several hundred other paying customers at the Florida Film Festival, in Winter Park. Here was Dogville testing the waters of small-town America Trier territory, if you will and, moreover, with a crowd of cinemagoers whose average age looked to be about 60. Had these people ever even heard of Trier? Or had Nicole Kidmans (and James Caans and Lauren Bacalls) name above the title been the draw? Im pleased, if a bit surprised, to report that, when the lights dimmed and the film played out across the screen, this crowd was really digging Dogville carried along by its sheer narrative force; laughing in all the right, grimly funny places; and erupting, when Kidman utters a valedictory catch phrase in one of the films final scenes, into thunderous applause. That certainly didnt happen at Cannes (where Dogville arrived pre-sold as a front-runner and, perhaps for that very reason, went home empty-handed) or, in all likelihood, in the many other places around the world where Dogville has already had a commercial release, to generally disappointing returns. But here, in the very country this supposedly inscrutable art film supposedly gets all wrong, with the sort of crowd that likely doesnt know that Dogme 95 isnt a station on the FM dial, Dogville seemed to touch a nerve. What does that mean? Possibly that Trier doesnt know so very little about the land of the free and its moviegoers after all. And that maybe, just maybe, after two decades of art-house kudos amid relative commercial obscurity, he finally has a hit on his hands.
DOGVILLE | Written and directed by LARS VON TRIER Produced by VIBEKE WINDELOV | Released by Lions Gate Films At selected theaters
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