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Footnotes

1The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “74 Percent Say Drug War Being Lost: Interdiction and Incarceration Still Top Remedies” 21 March 2001: 74 percent.

2 Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. (Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 2001), Table G.6: 39.7 percent.

3 Ibid., Section 2.4: number of new users = 7.6 million; U.S. Census Bureau 2000: pop. of City of L.A. = 3,694,820.

4 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Summary: FY 2002 National Drug Control Budget. (Washington DC: U.S. Govrenment Printing Office, April 2001), 1.

5 Office of National Drug Control Policy, What America’s Users Spend on Illegal Drugs 1988-1998. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 2000), 3.

6 Pew op. cit..

7 Pew op. cit..

8 Office of Management and Budget, Federal Government Outlays by Function: Outlays by Function and Subfunction, Table 3.2.

9 Bureau of Justice Statistics, State and Federal Prisoners from 1925 to 1985 NCJ 102494: total number of sentenced fed. prisoners = 24,162; Bureau of Justice Statistics Chief of Corrections Statistics, Beck, Allen J. Telephone interview. 7 June 2001: Total number fed. drug offenders in 1982 = 5,871.

10 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics 1999. NCJ 186179 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2001), 3: total drug offender pop. = 57.8 percent

11 Bureau of Justice Statistics, State and Federal Prisoners from 1925 to 1985 NCJ 102494: total number of sentenced fed. prisoners = 24,162; Chief of Corrections Statistics, Beck, Allen J. Telephone interview, 7 June 2001: total number fed. drug offenders in 1982 = 5,871; Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Populations in the United States 1993 NCJ 156241 (Washington D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 1995): 1982 state drug pop. is 25,300 out of 375,603. (1982 total = 31,171/ 399,765 = 7.8 percent) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics 1998 NCJ 180258 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2000), 98: 1998 fed. drug pop. is 63,011 out of 108,925; Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 1999 NCJ 183476 (Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, August 2000), 10: in 1998 state drug pop. is 236,800 out of 1,141,700. (TOTAL = 299,811 / 125,0625 = 23.9 percent)

12 Rydell, Peter C. & Everingham, Susan S., “Controlling Cocaine: Supply Versus Demand Programs.” http://www.rand.org Prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1994.

13 Ibid.

14 Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Agency, DEA Briefing Book. Appendix: Staffing and Appropriations FY 1971-2000: 1982 = 244.1m; Office of National Drug Control Policy, Summary: FY 2002 National Drug Control Budget. (op. cit.), 122: 2000 budget = 1443.853 m.

15Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Table 4.39: DEA seizure = 809,507, Table 4.44: Customs seizure = 1,468,158.3.

16 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Summary: FY 2002 National Drug Control Budget. (op. cit.), 122, 223: FY 2001 enacted DEA budget = $1443.853 million; FY 2001 enacted Customs drug budget = $721.595 million.

17 U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2001 2001-Q0317-001 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publications, October 2000), 37.

18 Ibid., ibid.

19 U.S. Department of Commerce, Tourism Industries Office, “Arrivals to the U.S. 1999 and 1998”

20 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Print Office), 93.

21 Ibid, ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report (op. cit.), 98.

24 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report (op. cit.), 171: retail Price of gram of cocaine in 1982 = $392.97, retail price in 1998 = $169.52.

25 Ibid., ibid: retail purity of a gram in 1982 = 39.58 percent, retail purity of a gram in 1998 = 71.23 percent.

26 Office of National Drug Control Policy Pulse Check, Mid Year 2000 (op. cit.), 25.

27 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report (op. cit.), 91.

28 Ibid., ibid.

29 Ibid., ibid.

30 Bureau of Justice Statistics Statistician, Scalia, John. Telephone interview. 12 June 2001: total number fed. drug offenders in 1986 = 15,185; Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics 1999 (op. cit.), 100; federal drug pop. 1999 = 68,360.

31 Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Populations in the United States 1986, 64: total sentenced fed. pop. in 1986 = 35,045; Bureau of Justice Statistics Statistician, Scalia, John. Telephone interview. 12 June 2001: total number fed. drug offenders in 1986 = 15,185; Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics 1999 (op. cit.),100: total fed. pop. in 1999 = 119,185, drug pop. = 68,360. (Change in drug/change in total = 63 percent)

32 Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Detailed Tables of NHSDA Data,” Table 1.36

33 Bureau of Justice Statistics. “Supplement to Table 1.4 of the 1999 Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics.” (op cit) 20 June, 2001.

34 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2000 (op. cit.), 9.

35 Ibid., ibid.

36 National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2001 (op. cit.), 55.

37 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Table G.6: number of new users in 1968 = 461, number of new users in 1998 = 1,245

38 Lyman, Donald R.; Milich, Richard; Zimmerman, Rick; Novak, Scott P.; Logan, T.K.; Martin, Catherine; Leukefeld, Carl; Clayton, Richard. “Project DARE: No Effects at 10-Year Follow-Up” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67:4 (1999): 590-593.

39 Rosenbaum, Dennis P. & Hanson, Gordon S. “Assessing the Effects of School-based Drug Education: A Six-Year Multilevel Analysis of Project D.A.R.E.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35:4 (1998): 381-412.

40 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Section 2.4: number of new marijuana users in 1997 = 2.6 million, number of new cigarette in 1997 = 3.4 million.

41 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Section 2.1: College grads = 45.6 percent, high school dropouts = 30.0 percent.

42 Ibid.

43 Ibid.

44 National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics. “Homicide Rates From the Vital Statistics

45 Thornton, Mark. “Alcohol Prohibition Was a Failure.” Policy Analysis 157 (1991), 3: per capita consumption in 1921 is approx. .2 gallons, in 1929, approx. 1.3.

46 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report (op. cit.), 15: average commercial THC content in “early 1980s” = under 2 percent, 1999 commercial THC = 5.58.

47 Shenk (op. cit.); Joseph, Miriam. Ecstasy: Its History and Lore. (London: Carlton, 2000), 19.

48 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report (op. cit.), 24.

49 U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2001 (op. cit.), 21.

50 Joseph, Miriam. Speed: Its History and Lore. (London: Carlton 2000), 22.

51 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Table G.6.

52 Joseph, Miriam. Speed (op. cit.), 10.

53 Ibid., 20.

54 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Table G.6.

55 Ibid., Table G.21.

56 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Research Report: Nicotine Addiction NIH 98-4342 (Rockville, MD: NIDA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services).

57Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999 (op. cit.), Table 3.117

58 Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report (op. cit.), 163.

59 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Research Report: Nicotine Addiction (op. cit.).

60 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Table G.11.

61 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Research Report: Nicotine Addiction (op. cit.).

62 National Institute on Drug Abuse, The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992, Executive Summary.

63 Rydell, Peter C. & Everingham, Susan S. (op. cit.)

64 Ibid.

65 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Summary: FY 2002 National Drug Control Budget. (op. cit.)

66 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Table G.6: number of current users = 14,820,000; U.S. Census Bureau 2000: pop. of Colorado = 4,301,261.

67 U.S. Office of Applied Studies, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (op. cit.), Table G.6: number of lifetime users = 87,734,000; U.S. Census Bureau 2000: pop. of California = 33,871,648.

68International Coffee Organization. “Total Production of Exporting Members Crop Years 1995/96 to 2000/01”


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