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Work in progress: The Sun ValleyPark and Recreation Centerwill someday be a model ofwater-saving green space.
If Lipkis ever yearned
for vindication of his dream to capture L.A.s rain
water, he could not have ordered up better weather than what weve received over
the past few months, the now-historic winter of 20042005. Torrents of water,
acre-foot upon acre-foot, have cascaded onto the citys impermeable asphalt surfaces,
backing up storm drains and flooding garages; causing hillsides to slide everywhere
from Pacoima to Pomona; littering beaches with garbage flushed from manicured
lawns and trash-filled highways 20 miles upstream. The death and destruction has
been massive and tragic, but it shouldnt have been, says Lipkis. It all comes
down to environmental literacy. Were there more literacy about our ecosystem,
the loss in dollars and lives would be down to near zero.
He makes such pronouncements with more wonder than judgment; in fact, he talks
about everything with the same wide-eyed enthusiasm, as if every sentence were
to start with Can you believe it? He makes you want to get out and plant trees.
Its possible to see in him the ambitious kid organizing the neighborhood, but
it also occurs to me that he would have made a good rabbi he finds near-spiritual
meaning and metaphor in the things most of us dismiss as mundane like the control
panel of his Prius.
Driving a Prius, he says, gesturing toward the lighted dashboard monitor that
tells the driver, among other things, exactly how much gas the car is burning.
Its living evidence that the technologys now available to understand each
of our contributions to our survival and sustainability, and it gives me tremendous
hope to see that concept embodied in a technology as ordinary as a car.
This idea fits perfectly with one of TreePeoples key missions: to help people
take personal responsibility for the environment. This is a value thats been
discredited in some environmental circles, where the massive resource-squandering
of agriculture and energy companies dwarfs the action of a single person. But
a hybrid car, Lipkis insists, reminds us that individuals matter.
Every one of us wants to make a difference, he says, but the whole world
conspires to tell you that you cant the prevailing messages are all about
inaction and cynicism. I learned early in my life that not only can you make
a difference, you dont have a choice. You might think that as long as youre
not choosing to do bad, youre not making things worse. But thats not true.
Youre always making a difference, one way or another, whether you acknowledge
it or not.
In a recent experiment at Epson U.K., energy monitors were installed around the
office, informing employees exactly how much electricity they were using on the
hour. Within a month, company energy consumption dropped 21 percent without
a single lecture or scolding.
We can do the same thing with consumption of fuel and water in homes, Lipkis
says. I have a very strong belief and conservatives might embrace this more
that people are well intentioned. If you give them good information and feedback
and incentives, they will rapidly choose to make the kinds of changes we need
as a society to save ourselves.
The state of California
may be divided over many things, but the one thing
on which most people agree is that Southern California has managed its water badly.
Last fall, the Los Angeles City Council and a coalition of environmentalists and
nonprofits, including Mary Nichols (director of UCLAs Institute of the Environment
and the former California secretary of resources), Heal the Bay and the Natural
Resources Defense Council, succeeded in getting a half-million-dollar bond measure
on the ballot to reduce polluted stormwater runoff at the beaches. Although Measure
O was initially drawn up to comply with EPA requirements for mitigating water
pollution as stipulated by the Clean Water Act, many started to envision an epic
dream of civil engineering not just to end runoff but to change the citys relationship
to its natural water. It was approved by 78 percent of Los Angeles voters. The
city has yet to distribute the designated funds, but several people involved in
drafting the measure have already cited the Sun Valley project as a worthy recipient.
Like many local advocates for the environment, Lipkis took the elections results
as a sign that Los Angeles voters have a heightened awareness of the issues.
But its one thing to punch a hole in your ballot pledging $50 more a year in
your property tax (or your neighbors) to protect the coasts fabled beaches,
another to make the kind of systemic political and lifestyle changes that would
make Los Angeles a truly green city, which despite its star-studded environmental
movement, it is not. While Chicago converted its empty lots and aging airstrips
back into habitat, and Portland installed water-absorbing bioswales (sloping,
gutterlike landscaping designed to catch rainwater) in its shopping-mall parking
lots, Los Angeles has barely managed to fix its potholes. While Sacramento and
San Francisco have not just a recycling program but countywide composting, Los
Angeles has a recycling program that cant handle the ubiquitous plastic bag.
And as all of those cities aggressively adopt solar and wind power as fossil-fuel
alternatives, L.A.s Department of Water and Power still prefers to find its
energy in out-of-state coal plants. Two-thirds of Los Angeles remains paved,
and 80 percent of its stormwater pours untreated into the ocean.
Some environmentalists in Los Angeles hold Lipkis partially responsible for
these shortcomings. They say that Lipkis, with all his clout, could have accomplished
more if he didnt so rigorously avoid conflict. Its felt that his trademark
niceness has allowed public agencies to greenwash what they say are feeble efforts
to meet clean energy zones.
Andy has received I dont know how many millions of dollars for various tree
plantings, gripes one local activist, and he was always eager to show that
trees would save energy. The DWP liked working with him, because its good to
have someone out front saying nice things about you. Yet L.A. has never managed
to divest itself of any of its coal-fired power plants, or do anything aggressive
in terms of renewables or conservation. Sometimes you wish hed use all that
political capital hes stored up to confront some of these people. Hes been
in bed with people he should not have been in bed with.
Melanie Winter, the outspoken head of the River Project and a stakeholder
on both the Sun Valley project and a new watershed retrofit at the Tujunga Wash,
puts it more diplomatically. If a lot of us are frustrated with Andy, its
because we recognize that hes the person with the most power and influence
on the inside [of city and county politics], and seven years ago he used his
influence to really make things change. But were way overdue for another paradigm
shift, she says. Im a patient person, but Im not as patient as Andy. Im
surprised more hasnt been done by now.
In 1990, after 20 years
as the ambassador of the urban forest, Lipkis sat
back and thought about what TreePeople had accomplished. I asked the questions,
Are we done? Am I happy? Whats it going to take to be done?
We started out to save a forest that was being killed by smog, and we realized
that we had to clean up the whole city. But there were other things I knew we
should be doing, too. Forestry has always been synonymous with watershed management,
so I said, I know weve been practicing urban forestry. Does that mean weve
been practicing watershed management, too?
The answer was No, but we could be. We know that trees can capture water.
Tree planting is not a random act. As I began to drill down, I realized that
random tree planting cant solve all the problems it doesnt yield concrete
solutions. We needed to practice strategic
Trees, Lipkis likes to say, are like acupuncture needles. You put them where
you need them for healing. And when I thought Could we do watershed management?
I thought, Yes. But it would require the right trees in the right places.
The next year, in the winter of 19911992, a long period of drought ended in a
series of storms that brought flash floods and landslides. Ten people died; many
of them drowned in flood-control channels. The city suffered billions of dollars
in property damage. Then, in the spring of 1992, seven officers accused of beating
Rodney King were acquitted in a Simi Valley court and parts of the city went
up in flames.
We had always realized that ecology meant social ecology, Lipkis says. That
we needed to protect kids, we needed to create jobs. Sustainability is environmental,
social and economic you dont get it without those three legs. And I asked
myself again: Are we getting the job done? Because if we are, then why are
We werent getting the job done in terms of mitigating human pain, economic
Lipkis spent a lot of time in those days driving around in his car, surveying
the destruction. He started to calculate what it would take to turn the city around
not in terms of engineering or watershed management, but in terms of harnessing
the citys human potential. Since its inception, the California Conservation Project
had sought to involve inner-city kids in its environmental work; TreePeople continued
that work, and the Los Angeles Conservation Corps joined them in the 1980s.
We saw kids whod come through our TreePeople program die from gang violence
whom wed known in the corps. Wed lost some special kids.
That spring, Lipkis read reports that Los Angeles needed 50,000 new jobs for urban
youth. After the city settled down, TreePeople put out a joint proposal with the
Conservation Corps to provide some of those jobs in tree-planting projects and
other environmental work. They asked for $10 million from the forest service,
but it wasnt nearly enough.
We needed a half a billion dollars a year for those 50,000 jobs, and we had
no clue where to get it.
Almost concurrently, Lipkis heard that lo and behold the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
was going to bring exactly that a half a billion dollars
to the city for a flood-control project. It wasnt a watershed management
project, but merely a plan to raise the walls of the Los Angeles River another
four feet along a crucial 12-mile stretch, sealing its fate as a storm drain.
Local conservationist groups erupted in protest; TreePeople, known as nonconfrontational
bridge builders, not angry activists, joined them.
I said That sounds nuts, Lipkis says. It wont create jobs, it creates more
pollution and it just gets rid of the water we need so desperately. Working with
other local groups, he came up with an alternate plan, one that would use that
half billion dollars to create jobs, and at the same time capture and filter the
water. Thats when I starting thinking more seriously about what trees do: Trees
as lungs. Trees as air filters. Trees as cisterns, Lipkis says, and I thought,
What if we could use technologies that mimic
trees? It would then be
possible not just to stop the floods but to capture and reuse the stormwater when
water is once again scarce.
For every half inch of rain that falls in Los Angeles, Lipkis points out, 3
billion gallons of water could be reclaimed in a system of networked cisterns
or tanks. In an average year of rainfall, we hemorrhaged 72 billion gallons
TreePeople, Heal the Bay and Friends of the L.A. River got the county to do
a supplemental environmental impact report to complement the one being generated
by the Army Corps in accordance with Californias Environmental Quality Act.
The Armys partner in all of this was Los Angeles Flood Control, Lipkis says.
And they werent thinking of the city as a watershed. In the public-comment
period that followed the first environmental impact report, TreePeople proposed
slowing and sinking the excess water along the river, spreading it across green
swales and collecting it in cisterns.
They said, Thats crazy. Thats a huge undertaking.
I said, But look at the cost-benefit analysis that waters worth something
to the DWP.
They said, Its cheaper for us to import it.
I went to flood control and said, Cisterns are a better way.
They said, Its cheaper for us to build the high walls.
Lipkis went away and conducted a cost-benefit study of the short-term, single-purpose
solution of walling off the river. He compared that with the multipurpose, long-term
solution of cisterns a countywide project that would also provide jobs and
brought his plan to a public meeting.
They said, Dont bother us about water supply. We dont care about water supply.
Its not our business. Someone from the Army Corps actually stood up and said,
The mission of Los Angeles Flood Control and the Army Corps of Engineers has
nothing to do with water supply. Its very simple: Its to keep water and people
Even some environmentalists have wondered whether Lipkis ambitious plan for
a networked reservoir of nearly a million cisterns in backyards all over the
city is realistic and whether it would make a dent in the shifting crises
of drought and flood.
Its not physically impossible, its not financially impossible, says UCLAs
Mary Nichols. But it will take a massive shift in investments.
Only one person at the public meetings that were held back then listened, says
Lipkis, and that was County Supervisor Zev Yaroslavsky.
No one else believed us.
Lipkis is not known for losing his temper. People are always looking for his
dark side, says his wife, Kate, and Im always telling them he doesnt have
one. He has a genuine pure heart.
But according to Lipkis himself, he lost it that day. I opened my heart in
those meetings. And when you open your heart, it hurts its scary. Hearing
his ideas dismissed and ridiculed, he gathered his troops and left.
Carl Blum, who was then deputy director of the Department of Public Works, followed
him out. He said, Andy! You should be happy about this. Youll have all these
concrete walls to plant trees along! And I said, Carl, we are not here to
decorate your fucking walls. Well see you in court.
The next year, TreePeople joined a lawsuit brought by Friends of the Los Angeles
River and Heal the Bay against Los Angeles County, alleging that it had violated
Article 10 of the state constitution, which prohibits the wasting of the states
water. It remains the only lawsuit TreePeople has ever been a part of.
Andy has been very careful, says Lewis MacAdams, founder of Friends of the
Los Angeles River. Hes built his organization in a certain way, that it was
not to make enemies. But once Lipkis committed to the suit, says MacAdams,
He was a great partner; he was there full tilt.
The results of the lawsuit were mixed. We lost the suit in the way that they
went ahead and built the walls, says MacAdams, but because they kept altering
the design to show we were wrong about how much it would cost, the price dropped
by $100 million. The fight that ensued also provoked both the city and the Corps
to think differently about watershed management. It led to the creation of the
Los Angeles San Gabriel Watershed Council, and it led to the Corps agreeing to
do a study of the watershed the first time they actually agreed to anything
Which, of course, MacAdams adds, being the Corps, theyre still doing years
MacAdams realizes now that we were never going to stop the project the momentum
was too far along when we started. But because of the three organizations
efforts, therell never be another project like it. Now all the focus has shifted
to getting them to clean up the mess theyve created over the last 100 years.
But Lipkis, for a change, stayed mad. The theme that runs through my life is
Ill show you! says Lipkis. And thats what? I thought Ill show
TreePeople joined that lawsuit as environmentalists, but I was
there on the merits of the money. And I wondered, When is that money
ever going to become available again?
First, he revised his cost-benefit analysis of the problems he wanted to solve.
I figured County Flood Controls budget was a half billion dollars. Los Angeles
citys water budget is a billion dollars. Most of that water is purchased from
the Metropolitan Water District, which imports it from upstate and the Colorado
River. How much water are we throwing away?
If you figure that half of the water Los Angeles uses is for irrigation, you
can estimate that were throwing away the equivalent of a half billion dollars
were spending a half a billion dollars on throwing water away. Theres got
to be 50,000 jobs in that!
Next, he realized that in order to get that half a billion dollars in the right
place, he had to get the Department of Public Works to think about water supply
and the Department of Water and Power to worry about floods.
That was the genesis of the Transagency Resources for Environmental and Economic
Sustainability, or T.R.E.E.S., project. With the help of an environmentalist-engineer
named Jeff Wallace, TreePeople created a unique software design to instantly calculate
the cost-benefit implications of various conservation and redesign scenarios involving
several public agencies.
We brought the skeptics. We brought the engineers. We brought in city planners.
We went the most conservative route so we werent dismissible as dreamers.
T.R.E.E.S.s first effort was a demonstration project on a single-family home
in the Crenshaw District. When it was done, in August of 1998, Lipkis alerted
the media that his organization intended to dump thousands of gallons of water
from firehoses onto a single-family home in 10 minutes. The media came, and
so did representatives of all the key city agencies, from Public Works to Building
As anticipated, the deluge disappeared into the ground and collected without incident
in a cistern installed on the lot. The event made the evening news and helped
convert Public Works Carl Blum.
You dont have to be a rocket scientist to realize that as more and more people
move to L.A. we have to get more water from somewhere, says Blum, whos now
retired, and that we dont have an endless supply in the Colorado River or
Northern California. But that was the first time I saw how you could get at
that challenge with a single-family home.
Obviously, youd need several hundred thousand of them to get the job done,
says Blum. But it was impressive.
The following November, when the first stakeholders on the Sun Valley Watershed
Project had their first meeting, it was Carl Blum who organized the proceedings.
If water is retained in the watershed, he said in his speech, additional
benefits may also be achieved, including water conservation, groundwater recharge,
and stormwater pollution reduction. Suddenly, the DWP, as well as Los Angeles
Countys Board of Supervisors, seemed fully supportive of storm-drain alternatives.
T.R.E.E.S., continues Lipkis, brought an economic sensibility to the conversation.
The argument for so long was, Is it the environment or the economy? We wanted
people to see we could have both.
So far, design teams assembled by T.R.E.E.S. have installed water-caching cisterns
under green swales at two local schools, including Broadus Elementary in Pacoima
and Open Charter Elementary in Westchester. The unveilings of both projects,
as expected, were well-attended by the media.
People have been down on TreePeople because weve involved the media a lot,
Lipkis says. But if Los Angeles needs 10 million trees, how are we going to
get them in the ground? Whats needed is to have millions of people planting
He points out that planting trees is physically demanding, painstaking work; each
person matters, but no one can do it alone. The same goes for large-scale ecological
change. To prove what he means, Lipkis picks up a 1,160-page copy of General
Accounting Procedures and Practices 2005
proceeds to tear it to pieces. Look, you cant tear 100 pages at once, he says.
But 20, well thats a little easier. One at a time, its easy. In time, you could
tear up the whole book that way.
The San Gabriel Mountains
rise up in the distance behind the haze, descending
gradually into the San Fernando Valley as we get out of the car at the Sun Valley
Park and Recreation Center, site of the watershed project that Lipkis has been
talking about. Ground has already been broken on one small segment of the project:
two gaping pits that will serve as filtration and storage basins for incoming
Water from a whole range of neighborhoods will be collected here, Lipkis explains,
by diverting storm drains. Over here is going to be a brand new soccer field,
Lipkis says proudly, pointing to a pit already fitted with black filtration
devices. Lighted, so they can play at night.
A group of homeless men have set up an encampment with a shade structure and
a small sound system perched on adjacent shopping carts at one of the parks
picnic tables. They watch curiously as we walk across the mucky sod toward the
holes in the ground.
Although TreePeople is now only one of many stakeholders in the watershed project,
none of it would likely have happened without Lipkis and his metaphorical trees.
It was Lipkis who promoted the idea of tree-mimicking technologies to filter
and store water, and Lipkis who promised to send his bilingual citizen foresters
out into the neighborhood to educate residents in backyard water retention.
It simply would not have achieved its current scope had it not been for Andys
effort, says UCLAs Nichols. The whole thing is emblematic of a new way of
doing business in this county.
Not long after we leave the Sun Valley Park and Recreation Center, on a nondescript
stretch of roadway, Lipkis pulls up to a taco stand. Hes never been there before,
and I wonder about the wisdom of two vegetarians with only rudimentary Spanish
skills ordering burritos from an untested roadside stand. But in a few minutes,
two four-dollar burritos come packed with rice, beans, lettuce and creamy avocados.
I wonder what Lipkis knew about the stand that I didnt. Then I wonder about
the burritos Weight Watchers point count.
Ill only eat half, Lipkis promises, and then tells me a scene he witnessed
on a fast-moving street in Van Nuys during a rainstorm in 1992.
Traffic was slowing down and backing up and no one knew why, he remembers,
and then I saw this man running crazily back and forth on the roadway, waving
his arms and shouting. No one could hear what he was saying because of the traffic
and the rain, and nobody cared they just wanted to get going. So finally someone
gets out and grabs the man and pulls him into a car, safe and out of the way.
Traffic starts moving again until the people behind the first few cars realize
something horrible: The Sepulveda Basin has flooded, the road has been washed
out, and the cars in front are trapped.
The man everybody thought was crazy was actually trying to save everybody,
and they stopped him.
Wow, I say. I notice Lipkis has come down to his last few bites of burrito.
It looks like youre going to finish that. Im done with mine.
Its okay, he says. Ill steam some broccoli for dinner.
When hes done eating, he returns to the story of the flood.
I have to tell you something, he says. That story about the man trying to
save the cars? It isnt true.
The incident 50 cars stranded at the Van Nuys intersection of Burbank and
Woodley in February of 1992 really happened. But there was no man running
around on the road trying to stop people. Cars just went over into the basin.
Lipkis tells the story from time to time because, he says, it has to do the
level of disconnect from nature, and the lack of environmental literacy among
urban dwellers. He added the fictional character because the other part of
the story is that the people who are nature literate, the people who are aware
and see the dangers, are almost always judged at first to be crazy, or odd,
or threatening. And there were many times before all this happened, he says,
that I was that man.
Those days would seem to be over. Its almost as though the things TreePeople
proposes, MacAdams says, no matter how preposterous they might have seemed
once, arent even controversial anymore.
On the way back to the TreePeople offices, Lipkis takes a conference call. On
the other end of the line are two local bureaucrats. They arent working on
a project; it isnt a negotiation. The city officials merely want his advice.
Andy Lipkis has figured out how to make himself heard.