Page 3 of 9
Or not. The final shape of the realignment is unpredictable, because affordable housing and smart growth are emotional touchstones at least as much as they are policy issues. They press the hot buttons that the people of Los Angeles famously, and scrupulously, avoid discussing: race, class, immigration, and the right to a patch of ground and an open stretch of freeway.
Ed Reyes understands that, and is trying to craft a strong-enough consensus among all the parties to win new affordable housing and gain a measure of equity among L.A.s neighborhoods, while giving life to a new breed of urban environmentalism. His goal is nothing short of re-defining the L.A. dream: a green city with recreation space for young people on the Eastside as well as the Westside, in South L.A. as well as the Valley, with efficient transit, ample opportunity and a social conscience.
But as developers see the affordable-housing crisis as a rare chance to advance against so-called NIMBY homeowners and L.A.s fabled red tape, and as affordable-housing advocates try to squeeze concessions from developers, and as all parties try to extract assurances from City Hall, Reyes and his backers may not be enough to control the future.
Standing above the MacArthur Park Red Line station, Ed Reyes points out spots where derelict structures have given way to new mixed-use projects under programs he started in his district that have now gone citywide: adaptive reuse, to turn old commercial buildings into housing; density bonuses, allowing increased floor-area ratio; and relief from mandatory parking requirements. With a sweep of his arm, Reyes shows where he wants to put flags of Central American nations and a market area for an Olvera Streettype experience. This is drug-dealer central, or at least it was. But with new attention from City Hall, its no longer inconceivable that MacArthur Park could be a family destination.
Critics call many of his proposals social engineering, because besides making affordable places for families to live, they expressly aim to put people of all economic classes in any given neighborhood.
Reyes turns around to point eastward toward the skyscrapers of Bunker Hill, and he lets loose.
"It wasnt social engineering when we spent millions of tax dollars to build these towers," he snaps. "We did this because L.A. wanted a central city. We wanted a skyline. And look who works there. Who benefits from that expenditure of tax dollars?"
The answer, of course, is that wealthy lawyers, accountants, real estate brokers and business leaders work in those towers. So do secretaries, bookkeepers, custodians and security guards, but Reyes says most of them commute by car or bus from miles away and have to hit the road before sunup for the privilege.
Dont the rich have long commutes downtown too? Ah, theres the irony. More and more downtown young professionals who can afford the high mortgages and rents are abandoning their suburban condos and giving up on L.A. dreams of the ranch house, the pool and the barbecue for a new urban vision: downtown living. The Spring Street loft boom may have played out, but developers of new projects, like Geoff Palmers Medici, Orsini and the like, command top dollar. Most make no room for below-market units.
Many Latinos, meanwhile, move out of downtown and Northeast L.A. as soon as they can and make their way to the suburbs to claim the older L.A. dream of the ranch house or the bungalow. Just how strong this trend is, and what it means to Los Angeles, is yet to be seen.
As a young planning associate working in City Hall, Reyes began studying where in the city all the building permits were being pulled, and where all the specific plans overlays that imposed special building restrictions were granted. Time and again, his research showed, the city handed out permits like candy to anyone who wanted to build in Boyle Heights, Cypress Park, Pico-Union, South L.A. No specific plans there. The protections against overdevelopment went instead to the West Valley, West L.A., Hancock Park.
Affordable-housing advocates note a shocking symmetry between the maps Reyes created that mark the still-unprotected areas of the city and the older maps from the prewar era that show where black, Latino and Asian families could buy or rent without worrying about restrictive racial covenants.
The advocates message is clear: Housing discrimination is alive and well. Minority areas get saddled with the big ugly boxes while the white areas are sheltered. The approval process has institutionalized NIMBYism, giving wealthier homeowners the power, through their City Council representatives, to send undesirable development to the east or south ends of town.
If that was the case in the slow-growth era, its even truer now, because of economics.