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Late in his life, in the science-fantasy novel The Place of Dead Roads, William S. Burroughs envisioned a world peopled by either Johnsons or shits. The Johnson is a classic American type, the kind of independent thinker lionized in John Ford Westerns and World War II comic books, a common-sense citizen who lives by his own lights and, in so doing, looks to protect his freedom and yours, too. The shit, by contrast, regards all that easygoing ambiguity as harboring evil. The shit has a pathological need to control, and instead of looking for space to be free, hes looking for freedom to effect those controls. The ascendance of zero tolerance might be regarded as the triumph of the shits, a logical extension of our Puritan past. Today, the Johnsons are on the run.
The phrase zero tolerance derives from the physical sciences, and first began cropping up in public discourse in the 1970s. Curiously, perhaps because it is so intrinsically absolute, it always occurred in a moral context in debates over environmental policy, or welfare cheats. But we can thank Ronald Reagan for giving us a good healthy shove down the road to shitdom, and then ourselves for going along with it.
In May 1981, a Marine Corps EA-6B Prowler jet crashed on the deck of the aircraft carrier Nimitz, and autopsies revealed that six of the 14 sailors killed had been smoking pot. ThenChief of Naval Operations Admiral Thomas Hayward launched a new policy of zero tolerance for drug abuse, saying, Not on my watch, not in my division, not in my Navy. The policy spread quickly throughout the military, but that wasnt enough for Reagan. In 1982, Reagan created the Vice Presidents Anti-Drug Task Force under George Bush first to tackle marijuana trafficking in Miami, then all drugs everywhere. Ron coordinated with his wife Nancy, who had already begun her infamous Just Say No campaign. Bush took his cues from the military and involved it heavily in interdiction.
Spending on drug interdiction tripled under the Reagan administration, but so did cocaine shipments, according to the DEA. Undaunted, in 1986 Reagan called for a renewed commitment against public enemy number one.
The next step in the crusade for a drug-free America . . . is to enforce a policy of zero tolerance of illegal drug use.
The timing of Reagans initial Drug War address said a lot about the way weve run things ever since. Just as he was announcing the Anti-Drug Task Force in 1982, a hefty report comprising six years of research from the prestigious National Academy of Sciences landed on his desk. Titled An Analysis of Marijuana Policy, the report openly recommended decriminalization of marijuana and states regulation of its sale and distribution.
On the same day that that report came out, President Reagan came out with his first big Drug War speech, says Kevin Zeese, former head of the National Organization to Reform Marijuana Laws and now president of Common Sense for Drug Policy. He talked about raising the battle flag and no tolerance for drugs. Most people havent heard about that National Academy of Sciences report, because Reagan stole the day. He had the bully pulpit.
Reagans true genius was that he could come off as a Johnson while acting like a shit. He shrugged off his scientific advisers as just another bunch of pinheads and pushed ahead with uncompromising criminalization. Along the way, he gutted an already inadequate treatment budget and closed clinics across the country. Just in time for the appearance of crack in 1982 and the explosion of drug-related crime, especially gang crime, which seemed to validate his approach.
I think it began with the get tough movement of the early 70s or so, says Mauer, with that politically inspired approach that identified crime as being a product of individuals doing bad things, rather than looking at a whole set of causes and options. Once the punishment model was in place, then it kept getting ratcheted up.
And in case you think Im ignoring Richard Nixon, believe it or not, he looks positively judicious when it comes to drugs. To be sure, President Nixon coined the phrase War on Drugs, but according to The Fix, Michael Massings study of national drug policy, Nixons first priority was to honor a 1968 campaign promise to bring the crime numbers down. So he hired a real, honest-to-god pharmacologist and heroin expert, Dr. Jerome Jaffe, to do it. Unlike our last four drug czars, Jaffe was not a moralist (William Bennett), an ex-governor of Florida (Bob Martinez), a police chief (Lee Brown) or a four-star general (Barry McCaffrey). He was a doctor, and he recommended treatment on demand. Nixon gave him hundreds of millions of dollars to open methadone clinics and treatment centers. Sure enough, crime went down. Nixon didnt have any tenderness for the drug user, but he created better, if not good, drug policy.