By Catherine Wagley
By Catherine Wagley
By Wendy Gilmartin
By Jennifer Swann
By Claire de Dobay Rifelj
By L.A. Weekly critics
By Catherine Wagley
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Napster. Napster. Napster. You‘re probably sick of hearing about the latest hot software and how much easier it makes it to share MP3 online music files. And about how that’s why the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is suing the San Mateo, California, company. And about how the software has been choking up college servers, so admins are banning it, spurring student protests. (Uh, what ever happened to affirmative action and tuition hikes?)
But if you‘re sick of hearing about Napster, that’s unfortunate. Because what‘s missing in the Great Satan (the RIAA) vs. Exalted Liberator (anyone who’s ever paid 15 bucks for a CD) Napster debate is that the technology is a computing breakthrough on the level of the World Wide Web. Someone at the Human Genome Project is using Napster technology, and it‘s not because he has a thing for Fiona Apple. Dr. Lincoln Stein, part of the project at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, is exploring ”how to use Napster-style automated resource discovery to enable scientists to publish their discoveries in the genome.“ The reason Stein and other experts are so excited is that Napster turns the prevailing computer technology of client-server on its side. (If you already know client-server, skip the next two paragraphs.)
What makes the World Wide Web work, ditto your office’s LAN (local area network), is client-server computing. Your desktop computer (called, in this context, the client) is networked to a larger computer (the server). Generally, in most offices, you‘ll be able to run your word-processing or spreadsheet programs at your own computer, but you must go on the network in order to print or e-mail. The usual configuration looks like the spokes of a wheel, with the server as the hub, and the PCs at the end of the spokes. Rarely, there is what’s called a ”peer-to-peer“ configuration, where all PCs are linked together, and then hooked up to the server. Keep that term in mind.
The World Wide Web is a giant client-server system. You at your PC (or Mac, forgive me) log on to the Internet (the network) and, through it, to a favorite site. The site‘s computer (a server) sends the information you requested back to you. Here’s the important part: Even if you e-mail someone, you‘re still going through a server -- there’s no direct contact between your computer and someone else‘s computer. If you want an MP3, you go to a site like MP3.com, request a song, and the site’s server sends it to your computer.
(Welcome back, networking geeks. You‘re gonna love this part.) What makes Napster a programming breakthrough, rather than merely a bonanza for intellectual-property attorneys, is that it is the first widespread use of a peer-to-peer system on the World Wide Web. You download and install the Napster software, which runs on your client. Once you’re connected, the software indexes the MP3s you‘ve got on your hard drive, then connects to the Napster server and makes your tracks available to anybody who’s hooked up at the time -- from your hard drive, not from the Napster server. Your computer is directly linked to someone else‘s computer, without a server in between. That is why it only works for as long as you’re connected, and why it‘s great with ”always on“ broadband systems, and a pain with a dial-up connection. Napster allows very fat clients, today’s superfast, application-stuffed PCs, to interact in a peer-to-peer climate.
”It‘s a true hybrid computing environment,“ says Tristan Louis, CEO of Movable Media, who has discussed Napster in his influential online newsletter, TNL.NET (www.tnl.netnewsletter). ” For the first time since the creation of the Web,“ Louis wrote, ”you have an application that allows for the widespread distribution of files across a network. It could allow for a new set of cooperative tools in corporate environments. What if I could work on a presentation and immediately share it with other people in my office?“
According to Eddie Kessler, V.P. of engineering at Napster, Napster creator and company founder Shawn Fanning had cooperative work tools in mind from the start. ”Shawn was enamored with the distributed nature of the IRC (Internet Relay Chat) peer-to-peer communication paradigm that allows for chat and file sharing, but which [lacks] the effective indexed search capabilities of a Web search engine,“ says Kessler.
So stop thinking of Napster as a way to score a dubiously legal copy of ”Charm Attack“ and realize that the product of then--college freshman Fanning could be one of the best networking innovations in years. Napster has made it easier by orders of magnitude to transfer entire files from one computer to another. Stein explains why:
”We’ve been stuck in a client-server paradigm for many, many years. People who had stuff to share had to learn arcane knowledge, like FTP, static IP addresses -- there were a lot of technical hurdles. The beauty of this system is, it does automatic resource discovery. Napster publishes the route to the user‘s information. Not just the IP address, which may change, but the port.“ (IP addresses are the unique identifiers of the computer you wish to connect with; port numbers are used to identify services within the computers, such as mail.) ”The client, when it connects, tells the server what IP address and port number the music can be downloaded from. Both numbers may change from session to session, and the port number may change during a session in order to work around firewall blocks and the like. This is very different from conventional Web and FTP servers, in which you have to know the IP address and port numbers in advance.“
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